MS Vatican Syriac 22 & MS Vatican Syriac 17: Syriac Manuscripts copied in South India
Apr07

MS Vatican Syriac 22 & MS Vatican Syriac 17: Syriac Manuscripts copied in South India

1. Introduction MS Vatican Syriac 22 & MS Vatican Syriac 17: Syriac Manuscripts copied in South India : There are many documents available from 14th century onwards which gives precise information about the Indian Christian community and the Bishops of India. Some of these were copied locally in South India. Amongst these, the MS Vatican Syriac 22 and MS Vatican Syriac 17 are the most well known Syriac MS from India. MS Vatican Syriac 22, the oldest known Syriac MS from India,  contains a lectionary of the Pauline Epistles according to the Peshitta version. It was copied in 1301 AD ( 1612 A Gr) in Estrangelo Script at Cranganore, South India by a deacon named Zakharya bar Joseph bar Zakharya at the Church dedicated to Mar Quriaqos . MS Vatican Syriac 17 was completed on 6th March 1510 AD (1821 A Gr) and copied by Mar Jacob “ Bishop of Hindo”, who arrived in South India in 1504 AD. According to the colophon, this was copied in the blessed and famous place Cranganore, South India at the Church of Saint Thomas. It contains the complete Estrangelo Script New testament. This is the oldest extant locally copied New Testament in India.  MS Vatican Syriac 22 & MS Vatican Syriac 17: Syriac Manuscripts copied in South India 1. MS Vatican Syriac 22 Folios Dimension Lines Columns Language Copied by Copied at 94 35 ½ X 24 ½ cms 22 2 Estrangelo Script Zakharya bar Joseph bar Zakharya Church of Mar Quriaqos, Cranganore, South India   a)      About the MSS This MS is a volume of 94 folios, of these 1 folio is from a rebound of 16th century. According to the colophon of the MS Vatican Syriac 22, this was copied on 1301 AD in Cranganore ( 1612 A Gr) at the Church dedicated to Mar Quriaqos . This MS is written in Estrangelo Script by a very young decon named Zakharya bar Joseph bar Zakharya  who was just 14 at the time of writing. This is the oldest known Syriac MS copied in India. Though from the manuscripts it is evident that the scribe Zakharya knows Syriac very well, Zakharya is very apologetic about his knowledge of Syriac in the MS.1 According to Levi della Vida, the first leaf was added to the book in 16th century as part of a rebounding done. A European hand in Italian has written about the contents of the book in the first leaf as “The epistles for the Sundays of Saint Paul for the whole year in Chaldean characters and language”. This is followed by a note in small Estrangelo script attributed by Levi...

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“THE VARTHAMANAPPUSTHAKAM” written by Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal
May23

“THE VARTHAMANAPPUSTHAKAM” written by Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal

“THE VARTHAMANAPPUSTHAKAM” written by Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal “An account of the history of Malabar Church between the years 1773 and 1786 with special emphasis on the events connected with the journey from Malabar to Rome via Lisbon and back undertaken by Malpan Mar Joseph Cariattil and Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal”. “Varthamanappusthakam” (1785) is the first travelogue written in an Indian language. The narrative of “Varthamanappusthakam “ begins with the death of Florence, Vicar Apostolic of Malabar in 1773. It elaborates all that happened after the death of Florence including the journey of Malpan Cariattil and Cathanar Paremmakkal to Europe with the events connected with it and ends with their return journey until they sighted the island of Ceylon. Dr. Placid J Podipara CMI translated this book into English and it is published by Pontifical Oriental Institute of Rome in 1971. About the Author Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal was born on September 10, 1736 Kadanad in the present Syro Malabar eparchy of Palai. He was ordained as a priest in 1761 and was the pastor of a few churches including his native church at Kadanad. He was well versed in Malayalam, Syriac, Latin, Sanskrit, Italian and Portuguese. He also authored a number of books including the translation of the book entitled ‘Imitation of Christ’ into Malayalam. Cathanar Thomman Paremmakkal returned from Goa as the Governador or the Administrator of vacant See of Cranganore. He could not do anything officially for the reunion with Mar Thomas VI as the faculties were given to Mar Cariattil. Up on return, Paremmakkal resided at Angamali. In 1787, the representatives of all churches assembled at Angamali and executed the famous Padiyola. All their grievances beginning from the death of Mar Abraham ( 1599) is addressed in Padiyola. They asked the Queen of Portugal to nominate Paremakkal as the archbishop, and in case the Queen did not agree, they decided to re course to Chaldean Patriarch. In due course, the Carmelities got assurance from Portugal through Rome that Paremmakkal would not be made archbishop. Tippu Sultan’s invasion caused Paremakkal to shift his residence and administration of the Church to Vadayar near Palai in 1790. He moved to Ramapuram towards the end of his life and administrated the Church from there. He died at Ramapuram on March 20th 1799. On March 26 1936, the body was exhumed and the remains were taken out and deposited in the wall of the sanctuary of old church at Ramapuram. Background After the Coonan Cross Oath, the Saint Thomas Christians were divided in to two groups one under the Archdeacon and the other with Rome. Among the Catholics, the Carmelite delegate in 1663 consecrated...

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“Christianity in India- a History in ecumenical perspective” by HC Perumalil and ER Hambye
Jan05

“Christianity in India- a History in ecumenical perspective” by HC Perumalil and ER Hambye

“Christianity in India- a History in ecumenical perspective” by HC Perumalil and ER Hambye About the Editors H C Perumalil CMI and E R Hambye SJ are the editors of this Volume published in 1972. Hormice C Perumalil CMI  is a priest who has worked on many mission roles from the Syro Malabar Church. He was the General Manager and General Editor of Prakasam publications, Alleppey. He has published numerous Christian literature in Malayalam and English. He is the Chief Editor of this ecumenical Volume on Christian history of India. Dr. Edward Rene Hambye SJ, a native of Belgium was a professor of Church History and Eastern Christianity. He has authored numerous articles and books on Christianity in India, Eastern Churches in India and about Syro Malabar Church in particular. He was also associated with many ecumenical initiatives. He also brought in to light many source documents on Christian history in India. He came to India in 1950’s and worked in different roles until 1980’s when he moved to Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome.  He is the associate editor of this volume. Introduction The idea of Preparing “History of Christianity in India- a history in ecumenical perspective” (1972) came from the celebration of the nineteenth hundredth year since the death of St. Thomas the Apostle in India. According to H C Perumalil CMI, there has been several attempts both in India and abroad on publishing the Christian history in India. Some of those contributions fall short of expectations as they were either one sided or lacking jejune. However there were many special studies, on the many local Churches, regions, missionary societies, various works and associations, and personalities. In the opinion of H C Perumalil, the only possible solution within the frame-work of a medium-size history is the ecumenical one as this approach can lead to a honest evaluation of Christian past in India. A number of scholars such as K P Kesava Menon , Dr. E. R. Hambye, S.J , Dr. A. M. Mundadan, C.M.I, Dr. G.M.Moraes , Dr. J. Wicki, S.J, Dr. A. Meersman, O.F.M, Dr. Dominic OCD , Dr. N.J. Thomas S.S.T., M E Gibbs, Dr. T. V Philip has contributed in this endeavor. Contents Foreword by K P Kesava Menon Preface by Dr. E. R. Hambye, S.J CHAPTER 1. Origins of Christianity in India by Dr. A. M. Mundadan, C.M.I CHAPTER II. Medieval Christianity in India a) The Eastern Church by. Dr. E. R. Hambye, S.J. b) The Latin Church by Dr. G.M.Moraes CHAPTER III. The Portuguese Padroado in India in the 16th century and St. Francis Xavier by . Dr. J. Wicki, S.J CHAPTER VI. The...

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“The Arrival of the Portuguese in India and the Thomas Christians under Mar Jacob 1498-1552” by Dr. Mathias Mundadan
Nov09

“The Arrival of the Portuguese in India and the Thomas Christians under Mar Jacob 1498-1552” by Dr. Mathias Mundadan

“The Arrival of the Portuguese in India and the Thomas Christians under Mar Jacob 1498-1552” by Dr. Mathias Mundadan Note about the Author Dr. Mathias Mundadan is a distinguished historian of Christianity. He is a member of the Carmelite Society of Mary the Immaculate ( CMI) and a priest of the Syro Malabar Church. Dr. Mundadan is a senior professor at the Dharmaram College, Bangalore. He took his Doctorate in Church History from the Gregorian University, Rome. Part of his dissertation has been published in two Volumes. He has also authored many books and articles. Mundadan is also associated with the ecumenical initiative- Indian Church History Journal and is the Author of the ICHR Volume I- “History of Christianity in India”. Contents in detail The period chosen for this study is an important period in the history of the Christians of Saint Thomas. This is about their first contacts with the Portuguese: first half of the Sixteenth century, from 1498 to 1552 AD. Earlier there was no satisfactory effort to pursue the available documentation, the main deterrent being the difficulty to access sources. According to the Author, the situation has changed recently. The publication of many of the 16th century documents by Fr. Schurhammer SJ, Fr. Wicki SJ, Dr. Silva Rego etc has opened up new vistas. The phenomenal encounter of East with the West was launched in Malabar Coast when Vasco da Gama set foot on the shores of Calicut on May 21st 1498. Both to the Portuguese and the Indian Christians the meeting came as revelation. But the end result was not so brilliant. Seeds of the unhappy developments of the later years and centuries were already sown from the very beginning. According to the Author, this was a question of two different mentalities, that of Malabar Christians and of the Portuguese. This was due to the Oriental Christian and Indian mentality of the native Christians and the sixteenth century mentality of the Portuguese Christians. Foreword Preface Contents Abbreviations Archives and Manuscripts Consulted Bibliography Chapter I THE THREE WORLDS Till the arrival of the Portuguese the Thomas Christians were living as if in two worlds. They were living in the geographical, political and social world of Malabar and their ecclesiastical world which was more or less Chaldean in Character. The Chaldean prelates governed the Church. The Thomas Christians shared the theological, juridical and liturgical traditions of the Chaldean Church. The Church of Malabar was, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the Church of Chaldea or Persia. The Thomas Christians of Malabar were governed by bishops sent by the Patriarch of the Church till the year 1599. After...

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Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics)
Aug24

Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics)

Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics) Many lists exist about the statistics of Churches belonging to Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) and Malankara Syriac Orthodox after the division of the Saint Thomas Christians community followed with the Syond of Diamper ( 1599 AD) , Coonan Cross Oath ( 1653 AD) and subsequent happenings ( 1653-1698).1 This is one of those lists about the Sixteenth Century Churches from a compilation done by K J Joisea in “ Socio Cultural life of Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala in the Medieval period”. K J Joisea’s compilation is based on the catalogue of the churches of Christians of St Thomas of Malabar from the Synodical Acts at Diamper (1599 AD) as given by Thomas Yeates in his “ Indian Church History” published in 1818 AD, London. According to this estimate there were 106 Saint Thomas Christian Churches, 9 oratories and one congregation, all together 117. In early nineteenth century ( 1818 AD), 71 Churches and 9 Oratories belong to Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church). 28 Churches belong to Malankara Syriac Orthodox . 7 Churches were shared by both Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) and Malankara Syriac Orthodox. List of Sixteenth Century Churches These are the Churches in alphabetical order and the denomination which it was under in early nineteenth century. Please note that before 1818 AD, there was only one division in Malankara Syriac Orthodox leading to the formation of Thozhiyur Church which had negligible strength in this comparison.2 1. Under Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) Total Number of Churches -71 Churches and 9 Oratories Aalapuzha (Alleppy), a church (Catholic) Aanacallunghel (Bharnanganam ?) – a church (Catholic) Aaragoshe (Arakuzha) – a church (Catholic) Adirampushe (Adirampuzha) – a church (Catholic) Alangatta or Mangatta (Alangad) – a church and two oratories (Catholic) Ambalacatta (Ambazhakad) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Angamala (Angamali) – two churches (Catholic) Badagore (?) – a church (Catholic) Badeate (Vadayar ?) – a church (Catholic) Beleanate (Veliyanad) – a church (Catholic) Cadanatte (?) – a church (Catholic) Cailacudi (Chalakudy) – a church (Catholic) Callurcatta (Champakulam ?) – a church (Catholic) Calnada (Kalnada?) – a church (Catholic) Calparamba (Kalparambu) – a church (Catholic) Cangnarpalli (Kanjirapilly?) – a church (Catholic) Canhur (Kanjur) – a church (Catholic) Cembi (Vaikkom ?) – a church (Catholic) Cenotta (Chenamangalam ?) – a church (Catholic) Cerphungal (Cherpungat) – a church (Catholic) Cianganaceri (Changanacherry) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Clovare (Chowra ?) – a church (Catholic) Codalur (?) – a church (Catholic) Codamalur (Kudamaloor) – a church (Catholic) Corolongatta (Kuruvilangad) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Corretti...

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