Champakulam Kalloorkkadu Marth Maryam Basilica and Poothara manuscript
Jan22

Champakulam Kalloorkkadu Marth Maryam Basilica and Poothara manuscript

1.Champakulam Kalloorkkadu Basilica Champakulam Kalloorkkadu Basilica is an ancient Syriac-Christian (Nasrani) church situated on the banks of Pamba River in Champakulam, Kuttanadu Taluk, Kerala, India. It is one of the oldest Christian churches in India. It belongs to the Arch eparchy of Changanacherry of the Syro Malabar Church (East-Syriac rite). It was the first church under the Niranom Church which is believed to be founded by St. Thomas the Apostle in AD 54. It is popularly believed that the first church at Champakulam was consecrated in AD 427 on the feast day of Holy Innocents. This ancient church has a unique place in the history of St. Thomas Christians and is the oldest church in the Arch eparchy of Changanacherry as well as the district of Alappuzha.  The  Forane churches at Alappuzha (Est. AD 1400), Pulinkunnu (Est. AD 1557) and Edathua (Est. 1810) were formed from the Champakulam Church. Champakulam and Kalloorkkadu Church rose into prominence under the Chempakassery kings when Kalloorkkadu Angadi (market) was a famous commercial centre on the way to the port of Porcca (Purakkad). Legend has it that Champakulam got its name from “Sambathkalam” – meaning it had huge wealth. On 27-Nov-2016, the Archbishop of Changanacherry, Mar Joseph Perumthottam declared Champakulam St Mary’s Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church as Basilica. This is the 23rd Basilica in India, 9th Basilica in Kerala, 4th Basilica in Syro Malabar Church and the first Basilica in the Arch eparchy of Changanacherry. 2.Poothara Manuscript This paper will discuss the history of the Kalloorkkadu Church with a primary focus on the historic events in and around Kalloorkkadu as recorded in the Poothara Tharakan Family History Chronicle (Nalagamam). The Chronicle was started by the renowned Priest Poothara Korah Cathanaar (born ~1675 AD) and later continued by Kurialacherry Valiya Thoma Cathanaar (born ~1825). This chronicle is being referred to as Poothara Manuscript in this paper. Poothara Tharakan family is a Syriac-Christian priestly family from Champakulam which had many Cathanaar (Syriac-Christian priests) since its founding. The priestly family Kurialacherry is the parent family of Poothara. The family was formed when Poothara Koshy Tharakan moved out from Kurialacherry Tharavadu to Poothara in AD 1540. Koshy Tharakan was primarily a trader by profession and was the recipient of Tharakan title from Chempakassery Devanarayanan King (Ambalapuzha Kingdom).Thumperchirayil family is another main branch of Kurialacherry which was formed few generations after Poothara. Poothara family and its ancestors were involved with Kalloorkkadu Church since the 12th century and played a key role in the periodic revival of Nasrani community and the church multiple times in history (AD 1145, AD 1544, AD 1730, AD 1885). The family gave birth to six...

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MUTTUCHIRA SLIVA AND LITHIC INSCRIPTIONS- LANDMARK MONUMENTS OF SAINT THOMAS CHRISTIANS OF INDIA.
Nov01

MUTTUCHIRA SLIVA AND LITHIC INSCRIPTIONS- LANDMARK MONUMENTS OF SAINT THOMAS CHRISTIANS OF INDIA.

Author : Dr. M Thomas Antony The ancient Christians of the Malabar Coast of India are known as the Saint Thomas Christians. They are also known locally as ‘The Nasranis’. They were ecclesiastically connected to the Church of the East, also known as the East Syrian Church which at its peak extended from Mesopotamia to China through Arabia, India and Central Asia.. The Eastern Church was separated from the rest of the Christendom from time of  the Synod of Ephesus. This was mainly due to political reasons but  doctrinal differences like ‘Nestorianism’ was also accused on the Eastern Church. The so called ‘Nestorianism’ seems to be a misunderstanding due to the expression of the faith using certain ambiguous terms in the Greek language. Dr Adrian Fortescue writes ‘we saw that Greek words used in the Nestorian controversy are sometimes ambiguous and add to the confusion by the fact that we are not always sure what the people who use them mean .’1 With the works of Babai, the Great of 6th century2 and  the visit of Patriarch Ishoyahb II (628-643 AD) to Antioch in the 7th century3 , the doctrinal differences became  reconciled, but due to geographical and political reasons, the Church of the East continued to be alienated from the rest of the Christendom. Interference with the Christianity of the West With the Crusades in the medieval period, the Churches in the East caught attention of  the Religio political interests of the European Christianity.  Missionaries from the Europe were sent to Babylon and the rest of the East. Their tactic was to begin a friendly relationship with the native Churches and then subjugate them. This resulted in divisions and revolts.  Eventually, in Babylon, the Church of the East( The East Syrian Church) was divided into the Chaldean and Assyrian Churches whereas in Malabar, India, the Church of Saint Thomas Christians divided into several fragments due to the interference of multiple colonial forces. The ancient Church at Muttuchira in South India  portrays certain landmark monuments describing the early friendly phase and the  later subjugation phase of these relationship- the Muttuchira inscriptions and the Muttuchira Sliva. Muttuchira Muttuchira is a village in the Kottayam District located  in the South Indian State of Kerala. Muttuchira was called Nayappalli  in ancient records4 . According to local tradition, the Christian settlement of Muttuchira was established in the sixth century.5 Antonio Gouvea, the Portuguese traveller who accompanied Alexis De Menezes, the Archbishop of Goa, documented  Menezes’ visit of  Muttuchira in AD 1599. Gouvea used the term Nayapili to denote Muttuchira.6 In the British Museum Sloanne MS 9907, probably written in around 1676 AD, mentions...

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Champakulam Kalloorkkadu St Mary’s Church- The Hidden Pearl in Nasrani History
Jan30

Champakulam Kalloorkkadu St Mary’s Church- The Hidden Pearl in Nasrani History

Champakulam Kalloorkkadu St Mary’s Church- The Hidden Pearl in Nasrani History Introduction Champakulam Kalloorkkadu church is one of the most ancient churches in India. It belongs to the Archeparchy of Changanacherry, of the Syro Malabar Church. Champakulam church is the mother church of almost all Catholic Syrian churches in Alleppey district in Kerala State. It was founded in AD 427. The Christian community of Kalloorkkadu originated from the Niranom Church which was founded by St Thomas the Apostle himself. Champakulam comes among the second generation of ancient St Thomas Christian churches in Malabar which were formed from the so called seven first generation churches founded by St Thomas the Apostle himself.1 Champakulam is a remote village in Kuttanadu Taluk of Alleppey district. The ancient church at Champakulam has a unique place in the history of Christianity in Malabar. It was involved in many historic events. It had a pivotal place in the efforts of reunion of Catholic Syrians and the Jacobite Syrians in the 18th century. Originating from Niranom church, Champakulam had very close relations with the Jacobite Syrian group and many Jacobite Syrian priests and their prelates even the Mar Thoma VI celebrated Holy Offices here.2 The church was bolstered by the Devanarayanans of the Chempakassery kingdom and had very close relations with the Ambalapuzha Sree Krishna Swamy Temple which was the head quarters of the Kings of Chembakasserry. Even today, Champakulam church participates in the famous Champakulam Moolam Boat race, which is a commemoration of the Procession of the idol of Lord Krishna to Ambalapuzha by providing rope and bamboo every year for the boat race as a ritual. Ancient accounts Champakulam church is called Kaloorkkadu church in the ancient records with reference to the name of the place. Kalloorkkadu angadi was very famous in the past when Purakkadu port was a prominent port between Musiris and Kollam.3 Kalloorkkadu was on the commercial route from the eastern Kerala like Aarpookkara, Kudamaaloor, Kuruppampady and Kaduthuruthy and others, to the port at Purakkadu and the spice trade was through this route until Alleppey gained more prominence. The port at Purakkadu has been mentioned in many ancient books like Periplus of the Erythrean Sea and the Book of Duarte Barbosa. Periplus of the Erythrean Sea mentions about pepper trade from cottonora which has been interpreted by many as Kuttanadu.4 Duarte Barbosa also mentions about Porca.5 The Chembakasserry Dynasty and Champakulam church The Chembakasserry Kingdom was founded in 12th century based at Kudamaalor by a Namboothiri with the help of a group of Nair warriors expelled from the Samoothiry of Calicut. These kings were called “Devanarayanans”.6 They later invaded to the...

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Catalogue of ancient Nasrani Churches, their affiliations and population statistics in the background of division and attempts of Reconciliation- A review of Literature
Sep13

Catalogue of ancient Nasrani Churches, their affiliations and population statistics in the background of division and attempts of Reconciliation- A review of Literature

Catalogue of ancient Nasrani Churches, their affiliations and population statistics in the background of division and attempts of Reconciliation- A review of Literature INTRODUCTION The history of Christianity in Malabar has been well documented after the synod of Diamper. Much information giving light into the ancient period is available as copper plates, inscriptions on rocks, palm leaf documents, artefacts, and oral traditions. Many authors have tried to knit up the loose history from available documents and available oral traditions. DIVISION OF ST THOMAS CHRISTIANS Until the time of the synod of Diamper, there was no evidence available to suggest any divisions among the Syrian Christians. After the Synod of Diamper (AD 1599) – the Coonan Cross Oath ( AD 1653 )- prompted the division of the community and both parties claimed over different churches. After the Coonan Cross Oath, the whole Nasrani community was divided into two groups, one continued to be loyal to the Roman Catholic Church keeping the East Syriac liturgy and traditions, called the “old party” or “Pazhayacoor” and the other under the Archdeacon known as new party or “Puthencoor”. Both were using the same liturgy and traditions for some time, but later, the Puthencoor moved towards the Church of Antioch and adopted the West Syriac liturgy and traditions and thus made the name “Puthencoor” appropriate. As the community was divided, the churches were also divided among them into two groups. There were a third group of churches which remained to be shared between these two communities. At the time of the Coonan Cross Oath, vast majority of people and churches remained loyal to the Arch Deacon. There are different accounts. “Out of the assumed 200,000 population, only 400 remained loyal to the Portuguese”.1 Joseph Thekkedathu reports that “some of them speak of 200 laymen and 15-25 Cathanaars. Others say that there were about 1000 laymen and 15 Cathanaars. In any case, it is clear that they were but an insignificant minority”2 After the Coonan Cross oath, the Arch deacon was consecrated as a Metropolitan by twelve Cathanaars at Alangadu on 22 May, 1653. The available historical evidences show that this revolt was against Arch Bishop Garcia and the Portuguese authorities and not against the Roman Church or Pope of Rome.This is evident from the available documents regarding the declarations on the occasion and a letter sent to the Portuguese captain at Cochin.3 Angamali Padiyola in 1787 reads “upon this, our forefathers assembled at Muttancherry and took an oath that neither they themselves nor their descendants, should ever have anything to do with the Paulists.”4 A Church Mission Society report for 1818-19 states-“After this, all the...

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Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics)
Aug24

Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics)

Sixteenth Century Churches – Churches belonging to Catholics and Syriac Orthodox ( 1818 AD-Statistics) Many lists exist about the statistics of Churches belonging to Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) and Malankara Syriac Orthodox after the division of the Saint Thomas Christians community followed with the Syond of Diamper ( 1599 AD) , Coonan Cross Oath ( 1653 AD) and subsequent happenings ( 1653-1698).1 This is one of those lists about the Sixteenth Century Churches from a compilation done by K J Joisea in “ Socio Cultural life of Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala in the Medieval period”. K J Joisea’s compilation is based on the catalogue of the churches of Christians of St Thomas of Malabar from the Synodical Acts at Diamper (1599 AD) as given by Thomas Yeates in his “ Indian Church History” published in 1818 AD, London. According to this estimate there were 106 Saint Thomas Christian Churches, 9 oratories and one congregation, all together 117. In early nineteenth century ( 1818 AD), 71 Churches and 9 Oratories belong to Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church). 28 Churches belong to Malankara Syriac Orthodox . 7 Churches were shared by both Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) and Malankara Syriac Orthodox. List of Sixteenth Century Churches These are the Churches in alphabetical order and the denomination which it was under in early nineteenth century. Please note that before 1818 AD, there was only one division in Malankara Syriac Orthodox leading to the formation of Thozhiyur Church which had negligible strength in this comparison.2 1. Under Catholics ( Syro Malabar Church) Total Number of Churches -71 Churches and 9 Oratories Aalapuzha (Alleppy), a church (Catholic) Aanacallunghel (Bharnanganam ?) – a church (Catholic) Aaragoshe (Arakuzha) – a church (Catholic) Adirampushe (Adirampuzha) – a church (Catholic) Alangatta or Mangatta (Alangad) – a church and two oratories (Catholic) Ambalacatta (Ambazhakad) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Angamala (Angamali) – two churches (Catholic) Badagore (?) – a church (Catholic) Badeate (Vadayar ?) – a church (Catholic) Beleanate (Veliyanad) – a church (Catholic) Cadanatte (?) – a church (Catholic) Cailacudi (Chalakudy) – a church (Catholic) Callurcatta (Champakulam ?) – a church (Catholic) Calnada (Kalnada?) – a church (Catholic) Calparamba (Kalparambu) – a church (Catholic) Cangnarpalli (Kanjirapilly?) – a church (Catholic) Canhur (Kanjur) – a church (Catholic) Cembi (Vaikkom ?) – a church (Catholic) Cenotta (Chenamangalam ?) – a church (Catholic) Cerphungal (Cherpungat) – a church (Catholic) Cianganaceri (Changanacherry) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Clovare (Chowra ?) – a church (Catholic) Codalur (?) – a church (Catholic) Codamalur (Kudamaloor) – a church (Catholic) Corolongatta (Kuruvilangad) – a church and an oratory (Catholic) Corretti...

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Cheppad St. George Church
Sep20

Cheppad St. George Church

Cheppad St. George Church is a Syrian Christian Church dedicated to St. george built in early century. Historical records say the church which existed in 7 th century till 11 th century at Harippad Mission Centre has been moved and re built half at cheppad and other half at Karthikapally. There is an interesting tradition about rebuilding of the church in 11th century connecting it to Karthikapally king and with Kanjoor Valyathan of Kayakulam royal family. The church is also the resting place of Cheppad Philipose Mar Dionysius, Malankara Metropolitan of Malankara Orthodox Church during 1825 – 1855. The ruler of Travancore issued a Royal Proclamation acknowledging him as Malankara Metropolitan In 1956 The Ethopian Emperor, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie visited this church.There is an interesting connection that the line of Ethiopian Kings to Haile Selassie is descended from King Solomon.The Ehopian King Haile Selassie gifted the church many things including Ethopian Cross, Holy Bible with gold engravings written in Amharic language (is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara) Even though the old church was rebuilt in 1952, the altar was kept intact because of the Murals. The main portico and subsidiary porches are built after the traditional pattern of the porches of Hindu temple. The wood carvings in the porches and the mural paintings which depicts the great scenes of epic of Jesus Christ are unique and rare specimens. The Murals (Wall Paintings) in Cheppad St. George Orthodox Church exhibit the Christian traditional paintings. The paintings are on the walls of The Madbaha (altar) of the Church, and show the events in the life of Jesus Christ from birth to ascension. It also illustrates some events from the Old Testament era. The 47 murals are arranged in three lines on three walls. The archaeological department calculates that the murals are approximately 600 years old and were drawn with the extracts of green leaves and fruits.  The rare and attractive paintings of St. Paul with a sword, Angels, Jesus bearing the Cross, Jesus is beaten by the soldiers, St. Thomas with a mint, Adam and Eve eating the prohibited fruit, Noah’s Ark etc. shows the mixing of middle eastern Christian painting and Kerala’s mural artwork.The archeological department calculates that the murals are of around 600 years old and drawn with the extracts of green leaves and fruits. By viewing the murals, the visitors of this church get a rare and indescribable experience and travel back through centuries into another...

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Churches on demolition line – Ramapuram Twin Churches
May01

Churches on demolition line – Ramapuram Twin Churches

Beautiful Isn’t? These are the historic twin churches at Ramapuram, one of the cradles of Christianity in Kerala, India. The smaller of these, in the name of St. Augustine, was built around 1450, and the other in 1864. These monuments may be razed to the ground soon. What no invader, no government, no other community, have dared to try, is being done with abandon by the Church itself. Aisanet TV reported last evening that a referendum is being conducted among the parishioners of Ramapuram on Sunday, April 29, 2007 about demolishing these famous shrines. The Church officials have taken a strong stand in favor of the destruction. Therefore the outcome of the vote is a foregone conclusion. The priests do not seem to be worried whether such actions and procedures conform to the laws of the country. The move to demolish the twin churches and build a ‘modern’ one in their place has been on for some time. The Hindu carried a report about this on February 18, 2005. The reason given for this proposal by the Vicar was that more space is required to accommodate the increased number of pilgrims! Apparently he was not alert to the fact that the newer of the two churches was also built for the same reason, but people who were responsible then had ensured that the old one was preserved. The vicar went on to give a piece of wisdom to the world: “God created the whole world for man. Archaeology is for the benefit of man and not vice-versa”. Shades of Benito Mussolini! Il Duce was reported to have said when his car knocked down and killed a boy, “What is the life of a child in the matters of state?” The Syro-Malabar Church of Kerala, under which Ramapuram comes, is the second largest (after Roman /Latin) Rite in the Catholic Diaspora. It is headed by a Major Archbishop who is a Cardinal. Can the authorities of the Syro-Malabar wash off the responsibility for the demolition mania? What about the Pope? In the recent Apostolic Exhortation, ‘Sacramentum Caritatis’, the Pontiff states, “A solid knowledge of the history of sacred art can be advantageous for those responsible for commissioning artists and architects to create works of art for the liturgy. Consequently, it is essential that the education of Seminarians and priests include the study of art history, with special reference to sacred buildings…” Let us join hands in this initiative and preserve our heritage. The construction of the present twin structure, should have been a lesson for those who call for destruction of the old church. Long time back we had this...

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History, Munnu Noyambu and Kappalottam – Marth Mariam Church, Kuravilangad
Apr14

History, Munnu Noyambu and Kappalottam – Marth Mariam Church, Kuravilangad

History, Munnu Noyambu and Kappalottam – Marth Mariam Church, Kuravilangad : Traditional beliefs, some legendary factors and historical associations contribute to the actual history of the Kuravilangad Marth Mariam Church. The Church is under the Palai Eparchy of Syro Malabar Church.  It is believed that four Christian families from Palayur arrived at Ettumanoor and they moved to Kalikavu near Kuravilangad in the beginning of the second century. Many believe that it happened in the beginning of 2th century AD. The traditional dating of the foundation of the Church is 105 AD. The miraculous intervention of St. Mary in the construction of the church is evident. It is belived that first appearce of Mother Mary happened at Kuravilangad. The never drying well on the hill top is an evident testimony. It is also said that the Jewish tradition of conducting prayer at hill top and the Jewish Persian tradition of building church at hilltop are the reasons behind construction at hill top. The present Marth Mariam Church has been built in 1960 by Manakatt Thoma Kathanar. The Church was renewed three times in the past before 1960. The Old Mani Malika has an inscription which tells the date of construction as AD 337. The Madbha is in Portuguese style. Thora has many murals. The present south Sankirthi is the Madbha of the Church which was re constructed in 1550 AD. The North Sankirthi was built on 1580 AD. There are many old murals, icon in the Church. There is also a Vadhya pura attached to the Church. The Open air cross is of 34” feet height and was installed on 1575 AD . There are 124 lamps in the open air cross. The Cheriya palli is dedicated to Saint Sebastian. It was established in 1868. The Cemetery Church was established in 1690. The Priests house was built on 1901 by Nidhiry Mani Kathanar. There are three bells which were brought from Germany in 1911 which weigh 1829 Kg,1317 Kg ,866 Kg respectively. One of them is more than 6 feet height. There is another bell which was brought from Portugal with an inscription. There is also an old bell with Syriac inscription. This bell is reported to have cast in 1584 with an inscription ” Ameh dalaha” ( Mother of God) for Blessed Virgin. Kuravilanagdu is famous for the three day Munnunoyambu feast which is participated by more than a lakh people. Rogation of the Ninevites, the three day feast and celebration of miraculous saving of Jonah, the prophet who was swallowed by a great fish is one of the main attraction. In the Old Testament of the Bible, Jonah is...

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Ramapuram twin churches, Role, History & Rituals
Apr01

Ramapuram twin churches, Role, History & Rituals

The centuries-old, twin-churches of Ramapuram near Pala is one of the old churches existing in Kerala.1 The twin-church complex at Ramapuram consists of a smaller church dedicated to St. Augustine and a larger one dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. While the church dedicated to St. Augustine dates back to around 1450, the one dedicated to the Blessed Virgin was erected in 1864. The structures represent a unique architectural style prevalent in the early colonial period with the Persian facade showing marked influence over the Portuguese style. The Roman columns and the veranda too are rare features of the churches of a bygone era. The church belongs to Pala diocese of Syro Malabar Catholic Church. 1. The role of Ramapuram Church in the Syrian Christian History The two churches which form a contiguous monument, had been an active element in the Syrian Christian history for the past nearly five centuries. It was the controversial Archbishop Alexis de Menezis who took the initiative in rededicating the then church (the smaller one which was in the name of St. Mary, originally) to St. Augustine; it was from here that Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar, the Governor of Kodungallur, ruled the Syrian Christian community and it is here his mortal remains are interred; it was here that the church council met for centuries. Above all, it is here the mortal remains of the Blessed Thevarparambil Kunjachan remains interred. 2. Rituals associated with Rampuram Church 1 There is a custom of carrying in procession a small golden chain with cross in a plate and going round the tall granite cross in the front yard. 2 For the feast of St. George there is a practice of offering roosters and hens to the Church. 3 At the feast of St. Sebastian, many faithful carry a small arrow in a plate, symbolic of the arrows that killed the saint. They also go round the granite cross. 4 Lighting candles and oil lamps around the granite cross is another custom which is followed even by non Christians. This is known as ‘Chuttuvilakku’. 5 Some believers crawl on hands and knees around the tomb of blessed Kunjachan. 3. History of the Church There are no written records about the beginnings of the Christian community at Ramapuram. But there is a strong oral tradition passed on from generation to generation. According to that Christian families began to migrate to Ramapuram as early as the 12th century A.D. from more ancient Christian centers like Kuravilangad and Aruvithura. The Hindu rulers of the locality encouraged and aided the Christian immigrants who were loyal and hardworking. So in the course of time the Christian...

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Ancient Churches , Stone Crosses of Kerala- Saint Thomas Cross, Nazraney Sthambams and other Persian Crosses
Jan16

Ancient Churches , Stone Crosses of Kerala- Saint Thomas Cross, Nazraney Sthambams and other Persian Crosses

Ancient Churches , Stone Crosses of Kerala- Saint Thomas Cross, Nazraney Sthambams and other Persian Crosses: Kerala has many churches of antiquity. Many lists exist about the ancient Churches and its year of foundation. There are mainly two types of rock crosses in Kerala Churches broadly classified as St. Thomas cross and Nazraney sthambams. There are also Persian crosses in other forms such as seen in Niranam and North Paravur Churches. Ancient Churches , Stone Crosses of Kerala- Saint Thomas Cross, Nazraney Sthambams and other Persian Crosses This article focus on 1.) Ancient Churches of Saint Thomas Christians in Kerala with year of foundation 2) Ancient Stone Crosses of Kerala 2.1) St. Thomas Cross- Locations of the Crosses in India- About the Saint Thomas Cross 2.2) Nazraney Sthambams -Locations of the Open Air Crosses- About the Open Air Crosses 2.3) Other Persian Crosse- Kottakkavu ( Parur) Cross- Niranam Cross-Nilakkal Cross. 1. Ancient Churches of Saint Thomas Christians in Kerala with year of foundation According to tradition Saint Thomas, the apostle established Seven Churches or communities in Kerala. These are Palayoor, Cranganore, Paravur, Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Chayal and Kollam. It has been suggested that the inland movement of St. Thomas Christians from the initial locations started from 3rd century onwards as part of their agrarian activities to bring more forest under cultivation. This resulted in erection of several churches at inland parts. In the succeeding centuries migrating Persian Christians and some local Christians concentrated more of their activities on the coast. The native St. Thomas Christians penetrated more and more to the inland parts. The immigrants from West Asia, who settled down in India at different periods of the history got intermingled and emerged in to the mainstream Saint Thomas Christians Community. The important churches which were erected during this period based on tradition are as follows,1 Church locations & Events YEAR of Foundation Saint Thomas the Apostle at King Gondaphares in North India c. 40 AD Saint Thomas the Apostle lands at Cranganore c. 52 AD Saint Thomas the Apostle builds churches or communities ( Palayoor, Kodungaloor, Parur, Kokamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal, Kollam) c. 52-72 AD Martyrdom of  Saint Thomas the Apostle at Mylapore, India July 3rd. 72  AD Kuravilangadu  Church founded c. 105 AD Pallipuram Church founded c. 290 AD Ambazhakad Church founded c. 300 AD Aruvithara Church founded c. 301 AD North Pudukad Church founded c. 400 AD Puthenchira Church founded c. 400 AD Chambakulam Church founded c. 427 AD Akaparambu Church founded 450 AD Angamali Church founded 450 AD Mattam Church founded c. 480 AD Muttuchira Church founded c. 510 AD Kaduthuruthy Church founded c. 510 AD Enammavu Church...

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